Mexico Connect
Forums  > General > General Forum
First page Previous page 1 2 Next page Last page  View All


scott

Dec 30, 2002, 5:11 PM

Post #1 of 27 (7810 views)

Shortcut

Turistas

Can't Post |
I have not seen as many foreigners in the whole time I've been here as I've seen the last two days. Where did they all come from?

And I don't mean only white gringos... The place is chock full of Chicanos too. And they are almost easier to spot than the other Americans!


(This post was edited by jennifer rose on Dec 30, 2002, 5:43 PM)



jennifer rose

Dec 30, 2002, 5:44 PM

Post #2 of 27 (7317 views)

Shortcut

Re: [scott] Turistas

Can't Post |
“Chicano” is a pretty loaded word, and I would caution against using that term for a lot of reasons, most of which relate to its inapplicability to those of Mexican descent who are visiting Michoacan. This forum isn’t the place to discuss the differences, but you can read about the differences at http://www.azteca.net/aztec/chicano.html.

Yessiree, the Hometown Folks are back for the holidays, and vehicles sporting license plates from all over the country are here in town. Pick up any of the local newspapers, and every day there seems to be an article about migrants’ return to the old hometown for the season. They’ve come from Chicago, Los Angeles, Georgia, Carolina Norte, and, well, all over.

Not only that, but Morelia is a favorite spot for vacationing Mexicans, too. The other night in Tzintzuntzan and Patzcuaro, I took particular notice of license plates – Nuevo Leon, Queretaro, Colima, D.F. (of course), Morelos, Hidalgo, Puebla and more.


Juan Norberto

Dec 31, 2002, 9:06 PM

Post #3 of 27 (7235 views)

Shortcut

Re: [jennifer rose] Turistas

Can't Post |
Jennifer,
Thank you for the reply to Scott. Many refer to people just for the of the skin. Which I think is WRONG.


scott

Jan 1, 2003, 1:54 PM

Post #4 of 27 (7207 views)

Shortcut

Re: [Juan Norberto] Turistas

Can't Post |
I still don't know the difference between a latino and a chicano and a mexican american and hispanic or a this or a that.......

I wanted to refer to Americans of Mexican descent, and I thought thats what chicano was. That is who I saw a lot of. Besides having skin that looked a little Mexican, they in no other way seemed to be from around here. Many of them were even wearing shorts, can you believe that??


machi

Jan 2, 2003, 7:10 AM

Post #5 of 27 (7128 views)

Shortcut

Re: [scott] Turistas

Can't Post |
Here in the US portions of America Latina (e.g., New Mexico) Chicano is not a derogatory term. It is most often used to describe folks of Mexican descent (especially recent descent), in contrast to Mexicans - born in Mexico but living here - (my children fit this description and call themselves Mexicans, though they are US citizens also).
We also have Native New Mexicans, descended from families here since before NM became US territory. They often call themselves Hispanics, reminding us that they do not descend from Mexicans but from Spaniards.
I call myself gringo (I got to used to that term during 20 years living in Mexico and don't find it offensive).
I like Mexico's 'official' term for the turistas you describe: Paisanos.
Perhaps all of us come together under the term "La Raza"?


Mereja

Jan 2, 2003, 11:05 AM

Post #6 of 27 (7069 views)

Shortcut

Re: [machi] Turistas

Can't Post |
We also have Native New Mexicans, descended from families here since before NM became US territory. They often call themselves Hispanics, reminding us that they do not descend from Mexicans but from Spaniards.




I don't quite understand this, since New Mexico was part of Mexico the people are descended from the same place. I have heard some Chicanos or Mexican Americans say they are descendants of Spain, usually because they don't want to be mistaken for Mexicans.

His•pan•ic

Pronunciation: (hi-span'ik), [key]
adj.
1. Spanish.
2. Latin American: the United States and its Hispanic neighbors.

n.
Also,Hispano.Also called Hispan'ic Amer'ican. an American citizen or resident of Spanish or Latin-American descent.


Uncle Jack


Jan 2, 2003, 11:46 AM

Post #7 of 27 (7060 views)

Shortcut

Re: [Mereja] Turistas

Can't Post | Private Reply
Here in the Southwest when people refer to themselves as "Hispanic" it is generally understood that they are trying to indicate that their family is directly desended from Spanish stock with no intermingling of indian blood.

Now just why that may, or may not, be important is another question.


esperanza

Jan 2, 2003, 12:49 PM

Post #8 of 27 (7037 views)

Shortcut

Re: [Uncle Jack] Turistas

Can't Post | Private Reply
'Hispanic' is a demographic term invented by the US Government for census purposes to cover any and all people of Latin American or Spanish (ie, from Spain) descent. As a descriptive term for place or race of origin it has been adopted by some people, rejected by others, and means very little in terms other than those originally proposed.

http://www.mexicocooks.typepad.com









keith

Jan 2, 2003, 7:24 PM

Post #9 of 27 (6980 views)

Shortcut

Re: [Uncle Jack] Turistas

Can't Post |
Hey, Uncle Jack,

People are interested in their genetic backgrounds. I'll bet you could tell us, for instance, exactly where the Wolff family comes from in some detail.


Uncle Jack


Jan 3, 2003, 5:20 AM

Post #10 of 27 (6968 views)

Shortcut

Re: [keith] Turistas

Can't Post | Private Reply
Actually, Keith, I can't.

Other than going back through three generations of Farrells (Irish) on my mother's side, and two generations of Wolfes (Swedish) on my father's side, I haven't got a clue.

Genealogy has never been of much interest to me. I am much more concerned with the actions and character of a person than who his/her Great Great Grandfather may have been. Please understand that I do not mean this in any sarcastic manner. It's just not important to me.

UJ


machi

Jan 3, 2003, 6:03 AM

Post #11 of 27 (6958 views)

Shortcut

Re: [Mereja] Turistas

Can't Post |
New Mexico was a part of Mexico for - what? - 26 years? Prior to that is was a part of Spain for about 260 years.
And always - up to the present - it has been a remote outpost, never really consolidated as an integral part of the Spanish or Mexican holdings.
I have tried to point out the terms I hear people in my community using to describe themselves. I doubt many of them consult factmonster for those terms.
Both the terms chicano and mexican american implicitly acknowledge a link to Mexico, and I appreciate the fact that, more and more, one hears these terms used with pride.


alex .

Jan 3, 2003, 7:02 AM

Post #12 of 27 (6948 views)

Shortcut

Re: [Uncle Jack] ancestors

Can't Post | Private Reply
Reminds me of the Japanese father that would not allow his daughter to marry an American because "Your family's ancestors are apes, our family's ancestors are gods."
Alex


Mereja

Jan 3, 2003, 10:19 AM

Post #13 of 27 (6896 views)

Shortcut

Re: [machi] Turistas

Can't Post |
Wasn't Mexico a part of Spain during those same years?


machi

Jan 3, 2003, 7:25 PM

Post #14 of 27 (6854 views)

Shortcut

Re: [Mereja] Turistas

Can't Post |
Here's a miniature map from the 17th cent.: http://www.portsmouthbookshop.com/MapPage/MapPages543xx/54316mexi.htm


Alteño

Jan 3, 2003, 9:02 PM

Post #15 of 27 (6844 views)

Shortcut

Re: [machi] Turistas

Can't Post |
Machi,

In 1682, didn't exist such a country known as México. What is now Central América, México, and several states of the US (California, Nevada, Nuevo México, Colorado, Arizona, Texas) were part of The New Spain, The New Kingdom of León, The New Santander, The New Vizcaya, and The New Galicia. All Governed by a Vicerroy appointed by His Royal Highness Charles II King of Spain. México was born as a country after the independence war in 1810. What is now México, was a part of New Spain then.


machi

Jan 4, 2003, 10:35 AM

Post #16 of 27 (6790 views)

Shortcut

Re: [Alteño] Turistas

Can't Post |
Alteño,
You are right, of course. There was no nation called officially 'Mexico' until around 1810-1822, and I did not mean to imply that.
Thanks for the nice list of virreinatos, I was looking for that.
The region of New Spain, however, was referred to as Mexico, as the old map indicates. If you look close, you can see the names of the virreinatos in French.
My point (often overlooked) is precisely yours: The region you describe was part of Spain for 10 times longer than it was part of a country called Mexico.
Here's a joke I heard from Mexican tourists in the US: "Hijole - cuando los gringos anexaron la mitad de Mexico, se quedaron con todas las carreteras buenas!"


MarisolEnPlayas

Jan 4, 2003, 2:41 PM

Post #17 of 27 (6783 views)

Shortcut

Re: [jennifer rose] Turistas

Can't Post |
I fail to see why the word Chicana is loaded. I use the term to define myself alternately with Latina. It defines pride in the Mexican culture that produced us and Latina includes the Latin Culture in general. Hispanic as Mereja said, (I believe,) is the U.S. Government's definition to define people of Latin heritage and I find that incredibly loaded for many reasons I won't go into here.

While Scott and I disagree on many things about those words I think his usage of Chicano is probably correct. Chicanos DO look significantly different than Mexican nationals that moved to the U.S. Some of us dress in extremes and try to adapt that look for reasons of pride in La Raza and some do it for pride in other areas-some of which are gang related and not so noble.

I can spot a Chicana a mile away and so can my husband as can most Latinos. It's not a rare concept. While it may not be politically correct in the U.S. to label ourselves something that we didn't adopt from other's perception of us, I do feel the term is useful. For instance, many Chicanos don't speak Spanish effectively and we tend to be very Americanized in some ways.

The best place to learn about these terms would be from a Chicano Studies class, not a website by Americans and Canadians, because you will have the facts.


jennifer rose

Jan 4, 2003, 9:52 PM

Post #18 of 27 (6754 views)

Shortcut

Re: [MarisolEnPlayas] Turistas

Can't Post |
Had you looked at the link I provided in my response to Scott, you would've learned the definition of "Chicano," straight from the Azteca website http://www.azteca.net/aztec/chicano.html

Chicano
A relatively recent term that has been appropriated by many Mexican descendants as unique and therefore reflective of their unique culture, though its first usage seems to have been discriminatory. The most likely source of the word is traced to the 1930 and 40s period, when poor, rural Mexicans, often native Americans, were imported to the US to provide cheap field labor, under an agreement of the governments of both countries. The term seems to have come into first use in the fields of California in derision of the inability of native Nahuatl speakers from Morelos state to refer to themselves as "Mexicanos," and instead spoke of themselves as "Mesheecanos," in accordance with the pronunciation rules of their language (for additional details, refer to the file MEXICO on this same subdirectory). An equivocal factor is that in vulgar Spanish it is common for Mexicans to use the "CH" conjunction in place of certain consonants in order to create a term of endearment. Whatever its origin, it was at first insulting to be identified by this name. The term was appropriated by Mexican-American activists who took part in the Brown Power movement of the 60s and 70s in the US southwest, and has now come into widespread usage. Among more "assimilated" Mexican-Americans, the term still retains an unsavory connotation, particularly because it is preferred by political activists and by those who seek to create a new and fresh identity for their culture rather than to subsume it blandly under the guise of any mainstream culture.

Latino
This term is used to refer to people originating from, or having a heritage related to, Latin America, in recognition of the fact that this set of people is actually a superset of many nationalities. Since the term "Latin" comes into use as the least common denominator for all peoples of Latin America in recognition of the fact that some romance language (Spanish, Portuguese, French) is the native tongue of the majority of Latin Americans, this term is widely accepted by most. However, the term is not appropriate for the millions of native Americans who inhabit the region.

Hispanics
This term is often used to refer collectively to all Spanish-speakers. However, it specifically connotes a lineage or cultural heritage related to Spain. As many millions of people who speak Spanish are not of true Spanish descent (e.g., native Americans), and millions more live in Latin America (cf., "Latino" below) yet do not speak Spanish or claim Spanish heritage (e.g., Brazilians) this term is incorrect as a collective name for all Spanish-speakers, and may actually be cause for offense.


It matters not to me what you opt to call yourself, but please do not be so ignorant so as to attach labels to others. There are thousands who would be offended by your appellations.


Alteño

Jan 5, 2003, 1:22 PM

Post #19 of 27 (6697 views)

Shortcut

Re: [machi] Turistas

Can't Post |
Machi,

The Virreinato was only one, that of The Nueva España, the others were provinces or Audiencias. All of them under the rule of the Virrey de La Nueva España.

The French "rare" map is not a reliable source, if you realize that during that time started the Succession War between France and Spain in Europe (with a French candidate -Felipe D'Anjou- to succeed Charles II as King of Spain). And in América the Spaniards were trying to throw the French invaders out of its American Colony, as the French had already occupied the area later known as La Louisianne. So, the French maps were not accurate to describe the territories belonging to Spain in that era.


tomgibbs

Jan 5, 2003, 5:00 PM

Post #20 of 27 (6695 views)

Shortcut

Re: [jennifer rose] Turistas

Can't Post |
Well all those various license plates in Mexico have attracted another group of eyes. After a few years in Iowa one year newlyweds Raphael (small town Zacatecas) and Xochitl (rural Guanajuato) are wintering home in Mexico and meeting their in-laws. Their attractive late model black Ford 150 pickup with cool ZACATECAS stencils on it was stolen this last week, in Zacatecas. Brother-in-law here says they have a sense of humor about it; but I don't think Raphael understands the fine print of his USA insurance policy and bank loan. They took a bravado attitude on the need for Mexican auto insurance, like a lot of returning folks, I think.

They must have aroused more envy then they had intended. They're young. I should have given them a long lecture along with the advice about taking I-80 to Des Moines, then I-35 all the way to Laredo. I told them about ATM's and that you are better not to carry much money crossing and traveling. They probably did all that right. But they're young, the last thing they probably wanted was for folks to see them humble.... So, I'm sure, they put on the shine. Damned insecurities!


(This post was edited by tomgibbs on Jan 5, 2003, 8:38 PM)


MarisolEnPlayas

Jan 5, 2003, 5:13 PM

Post #21 of 27 (6678 views)

Shortcut

Re: [jennifer rose] Turistas

Can't Post |
JenniferRose,

I don't bother with the links on this site, because I've already recognized the agenda here. I have obtained my knowledge of the "labels" you feel would bother others (others being White Americans primarily) by taking a Chicano Studies class in the Bay Area, taught by a well renown PhD in the area, who goes by Dr. Loco in his band. He teaches a doctrine quite different than the one you have portrayed and my money is on him...especially since he IS a Chicano by self definition. Your information about Hispanics is incorrect, and I'm not sure where you found it, but may I suggest that you actually take a class rather than taking information from subjective websites?

The only people that might be offended by my calling myself a Chicana would be people opposed to the pride associated with La Raza and that label. Therefore I want to suggest that education would remedy that problem. Chicanos are not negative, except to those that feel we should still be oppressed. The fact that we refuse to accept that is the thing that irritates others, not a simple label

There are a bevy of Chicano Studies classes that might provide you with a more appropriate understanding of the labels if you find interest. But please don't pontificate to me or others on what we should call ourselves unless you understand the meaning.


MarisolEnPlayas

Jan 5, 2003, 6:16 PM

Post #22 of 27 (6668 views)

Shortcut

Dr. Cuellar's definition of Chicano

Can't Post |
I was searching for something written by the professor I took the courses from to substantiate my point...here it is...taught by a professor that has many years experience, both as a Chicano and author of many papers on the subject. It is from his website but you can check his credentials for the authenticity of his subject and opinions.

CHICANISMO/XICANISM@

By José B. Cuéllar, Ph.D. San Francisco State University

Alias Dr. Loco

For

THE OXFORD ENCYCLOPEDIA OF MESOAMERICAN CULTURES

David Carrasco, Ph.D. Editor-in-Chief

In his seminal study of Mexican immigration to the U.S., Manuel Gamio first documented the use of "chicamo" (sic). He showed that turn-of-the-20th century native "American Mexicans" in Texas used chicamo as a derogatory term for more recently arrived mexicanos (Gamio, 1930, 1971: 129, 233, 259). The term has since gone through some very significant conceptual and orthographic changes over the past seven decades (see Acuña, 1982; Beltrán-Vocal, Hernández-Gutiérrez, and Fuentes 1999; Córdova et. al, 1986, 1990: De la Torre and Pesquera 1993; Maciel and Ortíz, 1995; Mangold, 1971, 972; Rendón 1972; Velez-I. 1996).

During the late 1950s the meaning of "Chicano" largely transformed from a negative signifier of "Mexican immigrant" into a positive self-identifier of "U.S. natives of mexicano descent." By 1959, high school students of Mexican descent identified themselves proudly as "Chicano" (Mexicans born on the U.S. side of the border/un mexicano del otro lado") or "Mexican American/mexicoamericano.

"Chicano" took on a narrower more leftist working class and militantly nationalist Mexi-centric identity and social activist definition, especially among young adults of Mexican-descent with more than a high school education, from the mid-1960s through the late 1970s. During this period, as a means of resisting Euro/Anglo-centric colonialism, a growing number of us also started utilizing precolonial native images and symbols, while drawing indígena identity and inspiration, from a great variety of Mesoamerican traditions such as the Apache, Azteca-Mexica, Maya, Chinanteca, Huichol, Hopi, Tolteca, Tarascan, Tzotzil, Pima, Purepecha, Pueblo, Yaqui, and Zapoteca. By the end of the 1970s, "Chicanismo" referred to the driving conciencia/consciousness of the shared struggles for human and civil rights. These struggles were known as "the Chicano movement," that emphasized the mestizo/mixed race and obrero/working class bases of our United States Mexican descent population (see Muñoz, 1989; Gómez-Quiñones, 1990). This movement transformed the ways immigrant and native Mexicans in the United States thought about past, present and future (García 1997).

More recently, during the 1980s/90s, the evolving definition of "Chicano" became even broader, more multinational, more equitable and multiple in ethnic and gender orientations, while strengthening its firm indigenista covenant. Entering the 21st century, there are growing numbers of U.S. natives and immigrants who claim various national origins and descents, (e.g., Anglo, Chilean, Cuban, German, Guatemalan, Salvadoran, Nicaraguan, Honduran, Irish, Puerto Rican, Peruvian, and Venezuelan) and also reserve the right to identify as "Chicana/o" or "Chicano(a)" or "Xican@" on the basis of their ideological orientation, that is their commitment to "Chicanismo."

Central among the outstanding artistic representatives of Chicanismo is JoséAntonio Burciaga, whose book Drink Cultura-C/S (1993) and murals Mythology of Maize and Last Supper of Chicano Heroes explore its core meanings. It is through a fine focus on Burciaga's written and painted work that we can grasp a broader understanding of Chicanismo (see Vélez-I. 1996: 244-64). He reflects both its political energy and the ephemeral artistry by examining, in his words: "the ironies in the experience of living within, between and sometimes outside, two cultures . . . Mexican by nature, American by nurture, a true "mexture" . . . the damnation, salvation, the celebration of it all"

Burciaga along with many other Mexican American academics, artists, and activists have struggled daily to combine complex clear critiques of U.S. society’s ethnocentric racism, machismo, and upper-classism with communal commemorations of the Mesoamerican chronology of cultural treasures and social tragedies. Out of this combined critique and celebration has evolved a contemporary Chicanismo with academic and artistic actions energized by the creative transculturation processes, and the renewed imagination of equality and democratic potential in our post-Y2K U.S.A. Many of these manifestations demonstrate direct links to both prehistoric past and postmodern present Mesoamerica.

A close examination of the JoséAntonio Burciaga murals illustrate the four major themes of his Chicanismo: a) the power of the creative earth and Mexican labor forces together; b) political transformation through powerful leadership; c) family links extending back to prehistoric times in Mesoamerica; and d) transculturated imagination of a complex indigenous identification, imagination and inspiration, spirituality and sagacity. First some concise descriptions of Burciaga's written and painted works and then some concluding thematic comments on the public presentation of Chicanismo (also known as Xicanism@).

Burciaga’s Drink Cultura contains twenty-six stories and commentaries, starting with the symbolic significance of c/s (con/safos) as a perennial Chicano graffiti sign-off and closing with a cheeky proposal for a national magazine for los muertos/the dead. Between these two we also learn about the joy of a jalapeño pepper-induced gastronomic ecstasy and the significance of Cinco de Mayo/Fifth of May. Although Burciaga’s never gives us a precise definition of "Chicanismo," his essay "The Last Supper of Chicano Heroes" details how and why in 1989 he painted a mural by that name on the east dining hall wall of Stern Hall’s Casa Zapata, the almost three decades-old Chicano-theme student residence at Stanford University, where he served as resident artist and fellow from 1985 until just before his death. His essay strongly underscores how the mural is an excellent representation of the essence of Chicanismo.

The idea for The Last Supper mural came to him while designing another mural on the mythology and history of corn/maiz. Burciaga conceived the Mythology of Maiz mural for an inside wall of the Casa Zapata Dining Hall at Stanford University in 1985, and finished painting it May 1987. Using the mythically valuable number six as a constant (six humans, six corn stalks, six animals, and six ant tunnels in the shape of a rib cage), Burciaga painted a Chicano mural representing elements of the many Maya myths surrounding maíz and its creation. At its four sides, Burciaga painted a different colored corn to represent each of the four cosmic directions. At the upper right hand corner, as a satirical comment on the Judeo-Christian concept of creation, Burciaga represented a iconoclastic Chicano transformation of Michaelangelo’s Adam complete with head-bandana and goatee, eye-shades and cigarette in hand, pachuco cross and teardrop tatus. In his words, "The central background color is a vibrant white, yellow, orange to red representing the energy of creation. The green corn stalks form a wreath. Above is a mountain range depicting the Southwest desert of Aztlán."

Burciaga originally conceived the central panel of his three-part mural’s as a depiction of a larger than life Christ and his twelve apostles at the Last Supper dining on corn tortillas, tamales and tequila instead of bread and wine. As a positive response to the negative reaction of some students to his Mexicanized Last Supper, Burciaga decided to replace the figures of Christ and his twelve apostles with those of thirteen Chicano heroes.

Burciaga's response to these criticisms is exemplary of the Chicanismo methodology of incorporating the voices of oppressed people into the creative process. He conducted a 200 person sample survey in 1988, asking 100 Stanford Chicano students and 100 Chicano community activists, to list their thirteen heroes with explanations for their choices. The stratified results of the 140 responses showed that the younger students scattered the votes over a total of 240 candidates while the older activists concentrated their votes on 60 who played important parts in American history, particularly during the 1960s/70s period of the Chicano movement.

Burciaga realized that the survey responses collectively reimagined the definition of a Chicano hero/ine as a mythical, historical, symbolic, military or popular culture figure. In the final analysis, the results respond to some critical questions. Does a hero/ine have to be a Chicano/a to be included? If only thirteen individuals are to sit at the table, how should they be selected? What about the others who receive significantly fewer votes? The answers are painted on the wall. Burciaga decided that the top thirteen vote getters should sit at the table, and those who got fewer votes should stand behind them.

Sitting at the very center of the Last Supper table is Ernesto "Che" Guevara, the legendary Argentine-born Cuban revolutionary hero killed in Bolivia. Three seats away from Che’s left sits Dr. Martin Luther King Jr., the assassinated civil rights leader who inspired efforts for equality all over the world. Obviously not all Chicano heroes are of Mexican descent.

Still, the eleven other heroes at the table son mexicanos! To Che’s immediate left is Ricardo Flores Magón, the exiled Mexican revolutionary intellectual who after publishing community newspapers and organizing political parties in San Antonio, Texas and Los Angeles, California died in Levenworth Federal Prison from beatings received for leading an escape of more than 70 prisoners. On Magón’s left is Benito Juárez the Zapotec native of Oaxaca who became Mexico’s greatest president during the late 1800s, and author of the often-quoted "el respeto al derecho ajeno es la paz —respect for another’s rights is peace."

Sor Juana Inéz de la Cruz (1648-1695), the 17th century mexicana feminist nun poet, with ever increasing influence sits next to Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. To her left sit two important Chicano scholar activists. Born into a Crystal City, Texas migrant farm worker family, Tomás Rivera, Ph.D. became an influential award-winning writer and higher education leader who served as the first Chicano president of the University of Texas at El Paso and the University of California at Riverside before his untimely death. Ernesto Galarza, a child immigrant to the United States from Jalisco, received a Ph.D. from Columbia University and pioneered an exemplary multidisciplinary style of Chicano community-centered activist scholarship that combined organizing farm laborers and writing critical analyses of their political and economic conditions, reflexive autobiographic prose, poetry and children’s literature.

Emiliano Zapata, the indigenous Mexican revolutionary leader who remains a heroic icon for native campesinos from Chiapas to California, and beyond, sits right of Che. On Zapata’s right sits César E. Chávez, the founding United Farm Workers (UFW) President from Yuma, Arizona who dedicated his life completely to la causa of improving the living and working conditions of laborers in the fields of California. Dolores Huerta, Chavez’s co-founding UFW Vice-President who has continued la lucha since Chavez’s death sits to his right. Next to her sits Luis Valdéz, CEO of Teatro Campesino and professor at California State University at Monterey Bay, as well as award-winning writer and director of plays and films (Zoot Suit and La Bamba). Frida Kahlo, the daring German-Mexican surrealist painter and contemporary feminist icon sits between Luis Valdez and Joaquin Murieta, the native Sonoran who migrated to northern California during the gold rush of the 1850s and became a legendary "Robin Hood"-like outlaw and all-out avenger of his wife’s rape-murder by "gringo 49ers."

Early California-native and San José’s first mayor, Tiburcio Vázquez, an educated poet who turned outlaw following a fight that killed a so-called "Yankee" constable, stands directly behind Murieta and between a Stern Hall employee originally from Mexico and another from El Salvador. Directly above Frida Kahlo stands her famous husband, revolutionary Mexican artist Diego Rivera. To his right stands Geronimo, legendary Apache leader, and Willie Velásquez, founder of the Southwest Voter Registration Education Project.

Slightly to the right and behind Che stands the murdered President John F. Kennedy and his brother Robert, between three Stern Hall workers and Gabriela Mistral, the Chilean writer who in1945 became the first Latin American to win the Nobel Prize for literature. Standing directly over Che’s right is Nicaraguan freedom fighter Augusto C. Sandino. And over Sandino’s right shoulder stands John Towns, Stern Hall food service worker and native Texan of African descent.

Burciaga painted a red-head-banded skeleton image of death/la muerte directly over Che’s head, because death received enough votes to stand behind the lucky 13. Burciaga called la muerte a heroine, and great avenger and savior from la vida.

Just over Che’s left, shoulder to shoulder with death, stands Carlos Santana, the Mexican immigrant guitarist who revolutionized Latino rock, serenading the chosen thirteen. To Santana’s right, between Enrique Mares and Juan Carlos, two Stern Hall employees from Mexico, stands Ignacio Zaragoza, the Seguin, Texas native who commanded the Mexican army that toppled the French troops in Puebla on Cinco de Mayo in 1862. Luisa Moreno, the upper class Guatemalan artist who migrated to the U.S.A. and became a labor organizer among United States Latina workers (from Florida cigar makers and San Antonio pecan shellers) and students during the 1930s, later was deported to Mexico as an undesirable alien during the McCarthy era, stands to Zaragoza’s right. To Moreno’s right standing among a multiethnic crew of Stern Hall workers is Los Angeles Times reporter and editorial writer, Rubén Salazar, the award-winning newspaper and television journalist killed by a Sheriff’s tear gas projectile while sitting in East Los Angeles bar on August 29, 1970, shortly after an unprovoked police attack on the Chicano Moratorium March Against the Vietnam War in East Los Angeles, California. In the upper right hand corner of the Last Supper mural, JoséAntonio Burciaga placed his Mexican-born parents, María Guadalupe Fernández Burciaga and José Cruz Burciaga.

Burciaga's commitment to a Mesoamerican context shows in the setting for the entire collection of heroes-a cornfield! Above the human group are the tassel tops of a milpa or cornfield, which has ancient roots in Mesoamerican culture. A tall Tolteca monolith standing on each side frameThe Last Supper of Chicano Heroes mural, clearly exposing its Mesoamerican roots. And La Vírgen de Guadalupe, also known as Tonantzin inNahuatl, the spiritual heroine in Mexican culture and patroness of the Americas (see Elizondo elsewhere), lofts directly above Che and la muerte, with a beautiful multicolored fiesta ribbon above her head stretching from one Tolteca monolith to the other. Below Guadalupe’s feet, flying just above death, is an "angelito negro" painted by Burciaga in response to the poignant Mexican bolero, "Angelitos Negros," that asks why artists never paint black angels.

Thus, while we see that the Chicanos heroes painted on this Stanford dining hall wall come from all over, and represent all colors, sexual orientations and socioeconomic classes, in the late 1980s they generally remained mostly of Mexican descent, revolutionary working-class, males of color, well-educated, and prematurely dead. Moreover, most gave their lives, some violently, to the struggle for social justice. Burciaga summed it all up with the following dedication inscribed on the Last Supper table cover: "and to all those who died, scrubbed floors, wept and fought for us."

"Xicanisma" is a contemporary extension of 20th Century Chicanismo that is ideologically rooted in the Chicana feminist "Mexic Amerindian" consciousness that rejects machismo, exclusionary ethnocentrism and nationalism while emphasizing our prehistoric tendencies toward interdependence and cooperation that transcends gender, class, race, and geographic boundaries (see Castillo 1994). As we enter 2YK, "Xicanism@" appears more frequently as an orthographically distinctive identifier and definer of the U.S. Mexican consciousness that is at once more feminist, cultural guerilla, and more Amerindio than ever.


Now, I defy anyone that is not an ovet racist to explain to me why there would be a negative connotation to this definition of Latinos and Chicanos. As you can see, the Chicano movement was grown on positive elements within our culture. This is why I come to this site with the attitude that MEXICANOS and CHICANOS may have a greater insight into Mexico than people that migrated here. Many of us grew up with this information and learned that we have a great deal to be proud of. I'm sure this post will be removed, as it doesn't illustrate the majority view here but I think a professor of Chicano studies merits a great deal of respect, especially when his roots are Mexican and he had dedicated his life to research in this area.


MarisolEnPlayas

Jan 5, 2003, 7:01 PM

Post #23 of 27 (6648 views)

Shortcut

Re: [MarisolEnPlayas] Dr. Cuellar's definition of Chicano

Can't Post |
Here is a survey site that further demonstrates the attitude of Latinos about self identification. It involves the attitude primarily of U.S. residents of Latino descent, and their own self identificaton. You will note that Chicano is one of the highest self identification labels used among areas with Mexican American inhabitants. Also, you will note that overall the word "Hispanic" is chosen as the most DISLIKED term. Why would that be? Because it was a label chosen by the U.S. Census Bureau to label us and differentiate us from others in the U.S.

I challenge you to find a high percentile of Latinos anywhere that define ourselves that way. You won't. While there are indeed individuals that do so, overall most of us hate that term, and I question why people continue to use a term that is degrading to us.

Scott hates the word Chicano and Latino, but I applaud him on his correct usage of the term. You will most likely find that in Mexico it is not a popular term either, because it is a dividing factor among us. While Chicanos feel a pride in our heritage, we can be very irritating to many Mexicanos. The reasons have to do with a great deal of disgusting things we do in their eyes and possibly rightfully so. However, you will find that historically, there has been some competitive gesturing between Mexicanos and American born Mexicanos. I don't condone the show off nature of many Chicanos that arrive in Mexico armed with new cars, dripping with overstated jewelry, and camcorders as if they are vulgar tourists to the area, showing off for the Mexican population. But I DO take a great deal of pride in Mexican history and the roots of my family. My father would not define himself as Chicano...he was born here. However I was not, and I do indeed define myself both as Chicana and Latina and do so without prejudice to others but as a degree of pride in my cultural affiliation with the area. My Mexican husband does not take issue with this, nor do my friends. They would laugh if I were to call myself anything else as they would quickly correct me. So why would I listen to someone that isn't even of the culture at all? I might add that they rarely laugh at my poor Spanish, although they insist I must learn my own language better. My husband is the first to tell me that Mexican Spanish is not representational of Spanish in the world though and insists I learn a more eloquent variety to accomodate my travels and professional standing.

But I simply find it disturbing when one who is not of Latino culture corrects someone incorrectly about such things because I believe that information should be learned from those who know.


MarisolEnPlayas

Jan 5, 2003, 7:02 PM

Post #24 of 27 (6657 views)

Shortcut

Re: [MarisolEnPlayas] Dr. Cuellar's definition of Chicano

Can't Post |
http://www.azteca.net/aztec/survey/


Cat

Jan 7, 2003, 5:41 PM

Post #25 of 27 (6574 views)

Shortcut

Re: [machi] Turistas

Can't Post |

In Reply To
I like Mexico's 'official' term for the turistas you describe: Paisanos.

First page Previous page 1 2 Next page Last page  View All
 
 
Search for (advanced search) Powered by Gossamer Forum v.1.2.4